The correct diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) remains challenging due to the complex pathophysiological and clinical characteristics of the disease. Current methods include invasive techniques such as cerebrospinal fluid analysis, which is used in combination with magnetic resonance imaging to deliver a diagnosis. Consequently, there has been interest in the development of non-invasive diagnostic tests for MS. Recent studies found that serum anti-α-ᴅ-Glc-(1→4)-α-ᴅ-Glc (GAGA4) antibodies were upregulated in MS patients [1,2], and this finding led to the development of a commercial diagnostic test (gMS® Dx test), although the test has poor selectivity and has not been independently validated. To this end, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to evaluate the use and reliability of several anti-glucose IgM antibodies, including those against GAGA4, as diagnostic biomarkers for MS . In contrast to previous studies, our results show that serum anti-GAGA4 IgM antibody levels are not significantly higher in MS patients, which could potentially explain the poor selectivity of the commercial test.
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- Freedman, M.S.; Laks, J., Dotan, N.; Altstock, R.T.; Dukler, A.; Sindic, C.J.M. Anti-α-glucose-based glycan IgM antibodies predict relapse activity in multiple sclerosis after the first neurological event. Multiple Sclerosis 2009, 15, 422-430.
- Braganza, C.D.; Santoso, K. T.; Dangerfield, E.M.; La Flamme, A.C.; Timmer, M.S.M. ; Stocker, B.L. Evaluation of anti α-ᴅ-Glcp-(1→4)-α-ᴅ-Glcp (GAGA4) IgM antibodies as a biomarker for multiple sclerosis. RSC Advances 2018, 8, 28086-28093.