Microbial cell surface molecules, such as bacterial lipopolysaccharides and exopolysaccharides and viral glycoproteins, are very important cell wall glycoconjugates and act as microbe associated molecular patterns in eukaryote/prokaryote recognition. Besides their general architectural principle, a number of subtle chemical variations are at the basis of the dynamic host-guest recognition that in case of pathogens is followed by the innate response and in case of symbiosis is followed by its suppression. Microbes, differently from eukaryotes, synthesize by their machineries an enormous array of monosaccharide structures/derivatives with which they built up they external cell surface molecules and drive their recognition by any eukaryotic host. Therefore, the chemical study of such glycoconjugates involved as virulence or beneficial microbial factors in animal or plant interactions is a pivotal pre-requisite for the comprehension at molecular level of microbe-eukaryote interaction. [1-4] In this communication, I will show some examples of puzzling mono-, oligo- polysaccharide structures and their 3D arrangements from microbial origins.
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